PHASE 2: EXPLORING OPPORTUNITIES
PREPARING SCENARIO WORKSHOP (Phase 2 / Step 1) PERFORMING SCENARIO WORKSHOP (Phase 2 / Step 2) ELABORATION OF RESULTS: FORMALISING AND PRE-ASSESSING (Phase 2 / Step 3)

“Increasingly, companies are rethinking where innovations come from.
The best ideas aren't always inside corporate research and development labs.
It is becoming crucial to knock down walls inside the company - between research and manufacturing or marketing - while at the same time reaching outside the company for ideas. But it's not easy, as powerful forces resist the opening up of companies' innovation processes."

Henry Chesbrough, assistant professor at UC Berkeley,
author of ‘Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology’

The objective of this second phase of the MEPSS methodology is to look at possible PSS innovation routes for the future. Phase 2 stimulates creativity and invites all stakeholders into a participatory process of PSS idea creation.
Elements in the second phase include:
    • Generation of new ideas
    • Rethink the values chain by scenario elaboration exercises
    • Deepen the stakeholder engagement process (both internal and external sources)
    • Management of idea generation and selection process
    • Collecting proposed ideas

The ultimate in innovation is not merely to come up with incremental improvements of products and services but to create entirely new offers and markets that have not existed before. It is to reinvent the way we work, play, communicate, recreate, etc. PSS thinking fits in our service economy where innovations, more than ever, transcend objects. Some of today's most successful companies, from Dell, Virgin, eBay to Google, have created new functionality levels based on completely new business models.

The idea exploration should deliver the ‘PSS seeds’ that can be sowed in the further development steps of the (radical) innovation roadmap. Phase 2 is probably the most crucial of all phases. As in agriculture, the quality of the seed is decisive for the quality of the crops that can be produced; excellent seed is, however, no guarantee for a good harvest as the weather conditions might be unfavourable, the seed might be sowed in barren ground, or the farmer might neglect the crop.

For the production of good quality seed, phase 2 of MEPSS offers a route that is described in this chapter. It is important to stress that there exists a rich and rapidly growing literature in this area, ranging from subjects such as new product development strategies, idea generation (ideation) and brainstorming, stage-gate thinking, technology and sustainability roadmapping, and many others.

The authors of this handbook offer Phase 2 of the MEPSS methodologies with the knowledge that there are many alternative tools and techniques. The steps and processes included should be regarded as some possible route descriptions to a company's PSS destination, a course with a nice view from a richer map.
Outline of Phase 2

This second phase presents processes and tools that may be used in looking for new and promising PSS opportunities.
    • Main objectives: To generate a panorama of contrasting scenarios and related sustainable PSS ideas.
    • Actors involved: Internal project team initially carrying out the project; Representatives from main stakeholders (or related competencies if the stakeholders have not already been identified); PSS design support (internal, if available, or consultants); project leader facilitating the workshop.
    • Main output: A set of possible scenarios/ideas.


Key steps in this Phase 2 approach are:

Step 1 / PREPARING SCENARIO WORKSHOP
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Step 2 / PERFORMING SCENARIO WORKSHOP
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Step 3 / ELABORATION OF RESULTS