MePSS Webtool - Tool (Level 4)

 
Worksheet W01 - Generic guidelines for successful PSS
Table of Contents
1. Objective
2. Putting into Practice
3. Implementation
4. Software, templates and other support
5. Call on Resources
6. Literature, examples and background information

Objective Table of Contents
The objective of this tool is to provide a list of the key issues to be addressed to contribute to a successful development of the PSS offer.

Putting into Practice Table of Contents

2.1 When and why should this tool be used?

This tool should be used at all the phase of the methodology as a checklist, to ensure no key issue is forgotten.

2.2 Who should use this tool?

The PSS champion mainly.



Implementation Table of Contents

3.1 How should this tool be used?

This tool presents a list of issues to be considered. To apply the tool, you need to draw a table listing all theses issues and ticking the ones that have been considered and the stage of the methodology at which they have been considered.

First round of issues to be considered at the start of the PSS development process

The list of key issues to be addressed during the development of a new PSS offer are:

  • Identify the importance of material products including infrastructure in the system versus the importance of immaterial service.
  • Check for options to increase the importance of immaterial service and decrease the importance of products:
    • Can you imagine a solution using almost no material input?
    • Will this have positive effects on environmental aspects of the offer?
    • Can the value creation in the whole system for all actors be de-linked from the consumption of raw materials and energy?
  • If you need products in the system then clarify the following points, in order to better formulate the product and service design:
    • Is your design based on already existing products (that you/a partner in the system produce/s)?
    • Can you use existing products available on the market or do you have to design a new product/get a new product designed?
    • What makes the system most efficient, what is the most elegant combination of product and system?
    • Does the product have to be designed to meet the service aspects or does the service has to be designed to meet the product characteristics?

Second round of issues to be considered

The list of key issues to be addressed during the development of a new PSS offer are:

  1. Organisation
    • Identify the product life cycle and the service ‘life cycle’ and how they come together.
    • Connect this with actors responsible for product development and design, and service development and design, and the timing of the production of product and production of service.
      • How can the system be organised in a highly professional way offering the PSS as close and convenient as possible to the customer/consumer?
      • How can you avoid transport of material products or people in the system?

  2. Co-operation and partnership
    • Identify which actors are needed to offer the PSS in a professional way taking into account which core competencies you and your partners have, which expertise you lack, which additional competencies you need, how this can best be organised so that all partners profit in the system and that it is as cost efficient as possible.
    • Understand how co-operation will work in practice, what information exchange is necessary, which cost occur for the partners and how the revenues have to be distributed, which contracts have to be made.

  3. Financing
    • Be aware that the financial situation is different in PSS than in a product selling system. Often the revenue is not gained directly but over a longer period of time. That means that investment and return on investment can be spread over a longer time frame with the necessity to provide a financial partner for that, or have own financial reserves. Furthermore the billing structure in a PSS can be more complex than in a ”simple product selling system”. If a consortium of companies provide the PSS the division of the revenues has to be clarified and fixed in contracts.

  4. Customer/Consumer relation
    • Identify exactly which consumer/customer needs you want to fulfil and how you can create as much value as possible for the customer for as little cost as possible.
      • How open is your customer for using services instead of or accompanying products?
      • How will you communicate the PSS to your customers?
      • What are the benefits for the customers compared with other existing offers and how can you increase them?
    • Is there a possibility to change your customer’s behaviour towards less material and energy consumption?
      • Can you reduce any inconveniences (e.g. dealing with waste disposal) and risks (e.g. handling hazardous substances) for your customer by offering a new PSS?
      • Can you offer your customers opportunities to be involved in the design of the system, or possibilities to learn, get interesting information, get more skills through the new product-service-system?
    • How can you reach a high customer/consumer satisfaction and therefore establish a close customer relationship through the new system?

  5. User interface
    • In a product-service-system with a high value in service the user interface is probably dominated by personnel rather than by the material product. Thus it is very important how this user interface is designed, how the staff that is in contact with the customer is trained and motivated. As services themselves are mainly immaterial the question is how the brand image and the value is communicated, how the point of sale can be designed in a way that expresses the idea and character of the product-service-system and increases confidence of the customers and attracts customers to use the system.
    • Check if you have the right expertise on board and the right information about your target group to formulate the design specifications for the user interface. If not get the missing expertise and knowledge, e.g. by involving external experts, by training your designers and marketing staff, by learning from experiences of other comparable cases….
    • Check if there are any obstacles, e.g. are your sales people paid by the number of product sales, then they will not like a service concept, unless you offer them other (financial) incentives to sell the PSS instead of products.
      • Are your employees and retail people capable of explaining the new PSS offer, do they need some training?

3.2 Result

The result of this tool should be a table that ticks the issues that have been considered at each stage of the methodology.

3.3 Input needed/ data required/ data acquisition process

None in particular.



Software, templates and other support Table of Contents

4.1 Software

This tool does not require the use of software.

4.2 Templates and other support

Issue to be considered / Phase of the methodology where it was considered Phase 1 - Strategic Analysis Phase 2 - Exploring Opportunities Phase 3 - PSS Idea Development Phase 4 - PSS Development
First round of issues
Identify the importance of material products including infrastructure in the system versus the importance of immaterial service.
Check for options to increase the importance of immaterial service and decrease the importance of products:
If you need products in the system then make clear the following points, in order to formulate better the product and service design:
Second round of issues to be considered
1 - Organisation
2 - Co-operation and partnership
3 - Financing
4 - Customer/Consumer relation
5 - User interface



Call on Resources Table of Contents

5.1 Personnel and time needed

This checklist requires approximately 1 hour’s work at the beginning of each phase.


Literature, examples and background information Table of Contents

6.1 Methodological References

Excerpt from "Final version of the design PSS methodology and toolkit for industry", by François Jegou, Elena Pacenti, Daniela Sangorgi, Ursula Tischner and Carlo Vezzoli.