| Worksheet W03 - Identification & Mapping of stakeholders|
|Table of Contents|
|2. Putting into Practice|
|4. Software, templates and other support|
|5. Call on Resources|
|6. Literature, examples and background information|
Applying this tool allows characterising and prioritising the stakeholders the company is acting with, in order to prepare an effective involvement of representatives in the further development of the PSS project. This tool provides valuable results for the Stakeholder Involvement Planning (Worksheet 4).
The application of this tool can pursue the following two different intents:
- To enlarge the range of stakeholders the company is acting with for increasing the dynamic interaction in the system that allows exploring a wider range of opportunities;
- Whenever a PSS idea has been generated, the application of this tool aims at selecting the stakeholders that have to be involved in the PSS project and in order to give them the appropriate role in the process with respect to their specific abilities, positions and interests.
2.1 When and why should this tool be used?
It is recommended to use this tool in the "Strategic Analysis" phase. Further update of the results provided by this tool is possible in the PSS development process, either in the “Exploring Opportunities” phase (in conjunction with the System Value), or at the “PSS Idea Development” phase. (i.e. whenever the decision process generates changes in the PSS idea to be designed).
The tool can be useful at a later stage of the modular methodology to improve an existing PSS Idea or PSS Concept by considering the potential stakeholders input.
2.2 Who should use this tool?
The PSS Champion should coordinate the implementation of the tool with the contribution of people from different horizons (assessment, design in particular when there is already an Idea).
Moreover he can also involve external experts (in particular to enlarge the increase the variety of perspective, those allow generating Ideas to be evaluated within “Exploring Opportunities” phase (System’s Feedback Diagram - Worksheet 8).
3.1 How should this tool be used?
Step 1 – Identify the stakeholders
In a brainstorming session the project team lists the main stakeholders (i.e. name of persons, of companies) considering the following first classification:
-Primary stakeholders are those who have a direct stake in the organisation and its success;
-Secondary stakeholders may be influential, but their stake is more representational;
-Social stakeholders can be communicated with directly;
-Non-social stakeholder cannot be communicated with directly.
In a second step the Project leader will have to check whether all sub-categories of stakeholders have been addressed and eventually stimulate reconsideration.
Step 2 – Map the stakeholders along the value chain
At this point the PSS Champion can distribute the template (02) in order to ask the participants to arrange the stakeholders formerly identified, in the diagram provided, considering that:
- Internal stakeholders are those stakeholders within the initiating organisation (which could also be outside the value chain) and they can range from the management of the organisation to its employees;
- Stakeholders from the value chain are those organisations or individuals that are part of the PSS Value Chain, ranging from suppliers of raw materials to the end-consumer
- External stakeholders are those organisations or individuals outside the value chain that can affect or are affected by the PSS under development and they can range from governmental and legislative bodies to research institutes and NGOs.
While the position of stakeholders in the value chain is depicted, important potential partners will be identified amongst these actors .
Step 3 – Prioritisation of the key stakeholders
Once all relevant stakeholders have been identified, the PSS Champion makes clear that the goal is to identify an appropriate mix of stakeholders who will be able to provide a balanced and meaningful input into the development process.
The PSS Champion presents the Influence-Interest matrix (see fig. 2 below) as an appropriate tool to evaluate the list of potential stakeholders.
The matrix is designed to categorise groups or individuals according to their “ability to influence” the process and the “degree of their interest” in the issue.
According to the matrix structure the identified relevant stakeholders are taken in consideration one by one and the participants and positioned in the matrix using the following criteria:
1. On the vertical axis the following criteria are used:
- Ability or power to influence the PSS development process
- Ability to contribute to the PSS development process
- Willingness to contribute to the PSS development process
- Ability to influence perceptions of others
2. On the horizontal axis the following criteria are used:
- Degree of interest in PSS development
- Level of concern with regard to PSS development
- Degree of impact of the PSS on stakeholder
The first tangible result should be a clear diagram depicting the primary and secondary stakeholders along the value chain. The second result should be a matrix ranking stakeholders according to their level of influence and their interest in the PSS, taking into account their individual function in the business model and to their role, contribution, and the effort they can make in project to be developed.
An intangible result concerns the participation of the mentioned actors for building the common vision necessary for a successful PSS development/implementation process.
3.3 Input needed/ data required/ data acquisition process
Good knowledge of the current stakeholders and potential new ones.
This tool does not require any software.
4.2 Templates and other support
- List the relevant stakeholders for your company according to their type:
- Map the relevant stakeholders for your company along the value chain, marking the primary in order to differentiate them from the secondary:
5.1 Personnel and time needed
The average evaluation of two hours is the necessary time for achieving both results tangible and intangible, useful for further communication processes.
6.1 Methodological References
You can also refer to the AA1000 standard (ISEA, 1999)
MEPSS Success and Failure Factors Methodology and Tool Testing (15 January 2004, Robert Wimmer, Wilma Aarts, Gerd Scholl et al) and inspired from Gutman’s means end chain model (1982).
It was developed by the Institute of Social and Ethical Accountability as a systematic stakeholder-based approach to organisational accountability and performance improvement. It stresses the principle of inclusivity, stating that organisations should aim to include as wide a collection of stakeholder groups as possible.