MePSS Webtool - Tool (Level 4)

 
Worksheet W13 - Simplified Interpretation Method for LCA - Part 3 of LCA
Table of Contents
1. Objective
2. Putting into Practice
3. Implementation
4. Software, templates and other support
5. Call on Resources
6. Literature, examples and background information

Objective Table of Contents

The objective of the screening LCA is to gain:

  • Recognition of the most relevant environmental aspects that could affect the sustainability performance of the product service system (PSS);
  • Good knowledge of the characteristics, and to a certain extent the magnitude of the environmental impact caused by the product service system.


Putting into Practice Table of Contents

2.1 When and why should this tool be used?

This tool should be used during the PSS Idea Development phase in particular, and will help to orient the design towards sustainable options. The tool should be used after the design phase of the Exploring Opportunities phase. It should make use of the results obtained from Worksheet 3 – Inventory of Sustainability Indicators.

2.2 Who should use this tool?

The assessment experts (environmental and social experts).



Implementation Table of Contents

3.1 How should this tool be used?

In case the decision timeline is short, the use of standard eco-indicators is useful. Such indicators reflect the total environmental load of commonly used materials and processes. A manual for designers, containing over 200 indicators is available free of charge http://www.pre.nl/eco-indicator99/default.htm; the annexe contains the standard list of indicators and simple tables.

The following steps must always be followed to ensure correct application of the Eco-indicator:

1. Establish the purpose of the Eco-indicator calculation;

2. Define the life cycle;

3. Quantify materials and processes;

4. Fill in the form;

5. Interpret the results.

In most cases it is recommended that you start simple and carry out a “rough” calculation in the first instance. Details can then be added and data can be revised or supplemented at a later stage. This ensures that you do not waste too much time with details.

Step 1 - Establish the purpose of the Eco-indicator calculation

Actions to be taken

· Define whether an analysis of one specific product is being carried out or a comparison between several PSS;

· Describe the PSS that is being analysed;

· Define the level of accuracy required.

If the purpose of the calculation is to obtain a rapid overall impression of a product’s major environmentally damaging processes, it is sufficient to include a number of core items.

This will result in approximate assumptions being made and only main processes being included. At a later stage, however, you may well wish to look specifically and in detail for alternatives to aspects of the problem or, for example, to compare a new design with an existing one. In that case a more meticulous approach is necessary and a solid, fair basis for comparison. It is also possible with comparisons to disregard components or processes that are common to both product life cycles.

Step 2 - Define the life cycle

Actions to be taken

· Draw up a schematic overview of the PSS life cycle. We recommend to use the System - Map for this (worksheet 15)

List the most important processes, materials and services. As you will see later, the indicator list of the Eco-Indicators 99 does not specify many services, so you will have to translate these in basic processes, such as energy, transport etc. The screening LCA using input output (worksheet 5A) can help you to get data on services.

Step 3 - Quantify materials, services and processes

Actions to be taken

· Determine a functional unit;

· Quantify all relevant processes from the process tree;

· Make assumptions for any missing data.

When you compare different PSS ideas generated, or when you compare PSS with a traditional product solution, you should try to define a comparison basis. Usually the main function is used as a basis, but many PSS have several functions, and quite often these are quite difficult to define in objective terms.

Step 4 - Fill in the form

Actions to be taken

· Note the materials and processes on the form and enter the amounts;

· Find the relevant Eco-indicator values and enter these;

· Calculate the scores by multiplying the amounts by the indicator values;

· Add the subsidiary results together.

A simple form has been developed to make the Eco-indicator calculations. Please refer to the template section to find this form. This sheet can be copied for personal use.

If an indicator value for a material or process is missing this causes a problem that can be resolved as follows:

· Check whether the missing indicator could make a significant contribution to the total environmental impact;

· Substitute a known indicator for the unknown one. If you study the list you will see that the indicator values for plastics are always in the same range. Based on this it is possible to estimate a value for a missing plastic that is within this range;

· Request an environmental expert to calculate a new indicator value. Software packages are available for this purpose.

The omission of a material or process because no indicator value is available is only admissible if it is clear that the anticipated contribution of this part is very small. It is generally better to estimate than to omit (A zero value is wrong anyhow).

Step 5 - Interpret the results

Actions to be taken

· Combine (provisional) conclusions with the results;

· Check the effect of assumptions and uncertainties;

· Amend conclusions (if appropriate);

· Check whether the purpose of the calculation has been met.

Analyse which processes and phases in the life cycle are the most important or which alternative has the lowest score. Always verify the effect of assumptions and uncertainties for these dominant processes.

Useful questions to keep in mind

· What happens to the result if an assumption changes slightly?

· Does the main conclusion stand or do the priorities or the preference for a product change? If so, the assumption will have to be reassessed, and supplementary information will have to be sought.

Please be aware of the fact that the standard Eco-indicator values from the list are not exact. In the Manual for Designers (see http://www.pre.nl/eco-indicator99/ei99-reports.htm) we discuss some of the reasons for this uncertainty and we suggest a procedure to deal with it.

3.2 Result

The result should give you an estimate of the environmental load of the different products and services in the system. These results can also be fed as an input into to the tool on Sustainability Orienting Guidelines (Worksheet 18).

When PSS are compared it is also possible to understand which PSS alternative has a lower environmental load. Please be aware that this approach will provide only rough estimates. Therefore, you should only interpret significant differences (a factor 2 or more) as relevant.

ECO-indicators should not be used for external communication; it is not an eco-label.

3.3 Input needed/ data required/ data acquisition process

Good communication with suppliers and stakeholders that have participation in the value chain (use, disposal, distribution, etc).



Software, templates and other support Table of Contents

4.1 Software

This tool does not require any software, although you might want to try one of the following software tools, that contain the same indicators:

ECO-it, see www.pre.nl/eco-it

ECO-scan, see http://www.ind.tno.nl/en/product/ecoscan/index.html

4.2 Templates and other support

Product or component Project

Date

Author

Notes and conclusions

Production

Materials, processing, transport and extra energy

Material or process

Amount

Indicator

Results

Total

Use

Transport, energy and any auxiliary materials

Process

Amount

Indicator

Results

Total

Disposal

Disposal processes per type of material

Material and type of processing

Amount

Indicator

Result

Total

TOTAL (all phases)


Production of ferrous metals (in millipoints per kg)
Indicator Description

Cast iron

240

Casting iron with > 2% carbon compound

1

Converter steel

94

Block material containing only primary steel

1

Electro steel

24

Block material containing only secondary scrap

1

Steel

86

Block material containing 80% primary iron, 20% scrap

1

Steel high alloy

910

Block material containing 71% primary iron, 16% Cr,

13% Ni

1

Steel low alloy

110

Block material containing 93% primary iron, 5% scrap,

1% alloy metals

1


Production of non ferrous metals (in millipoints per kg)
Indicator Description

Aluminium 100% Rec.

60

Block containing only secondary material

1

Aluminium 0% Rec.

780

Block containing only primary material

1

Chromium

970

Block, containing only primary material

1

Copper

1400

Block, containing only primary material

1

Lead

640

Block, containing 50% secondary lead

1

Nickel enriched

5200

Block, containing only primary material

1

Palladium enriched

4600000

Block, containing only primary material

1

Platinum

7000000

Block, containing only primary material

1

Rhodium enriched

12000000

Block, containing only primary material

1

Zinc

3200

Block, containing only primary material (plating quality)

1


Processing of metals (in millipoints)
Indicator Description

Bending – aluminium

0.000047

one sheet of 1mm over width of 1 metre; bending 90o

4

Bending – steel

0.00008

one sheet of 1mm over width of 1 metre; bending 90o

4

Bending – RVS

0.00011

one sheet of 1mm over width of 1 metre; bending 90o

4

Brazing

4000

per kg brazing, including brazing material (45% silver,

27% copper,

25% tin)

1

Cold roll into sheet

18

per thickness reduction of 1 mm of 1 m2 plate

4

Electrolytic Chromium plating

1100

per m2, 1 ?m thick, double sided; data fairly unreliable

4

Electrolytic galvanising

130

per m2, 2.5 ?m thick, double sided; data fairly unreliable

4

Extrusion – aluminium

72

per kg

4

Milling, turning, drilling

800

per dm3 removed material, without production of lost

material

4

Pressing

23

per kg deformed metal. Do not include non-deformed parts!

4

Spot welding – aluminium

2.7

per weld of 7 mm diameter, sheet thickness 2 mm

4

Shearing/stamping –aluminium

0.000036

per mm2 cutting surface

4

Shearing/stamping – steel

0.00006

per mm2 cutting surface

4

Shearing/stamping – RVS

0.000086

per mm2 cutting surface

4

Sheet production

30

per kg production of sheet out of block material

4

Band zinc coating

4300

(Sendzimir zink coating) per m2, 20-45 ?m thick, including

zinc

1

Hot galvanising

3300

per m2, 100 ?m thick, including zinc

1

Zinc coating (conversion um)

49

per m2, 1 extra ?m thickness, including zinc

1


Production of plastic granulate (in millipoints per kg)
Indicator Description

ABS

400

3

HDPE

330

1

LDPE

360

1

PA 6.6

630

3

PC

510

1

PET

380

3

PET bottle grade

390

used for bottles

3

PP

330

3

PS (GPPS)

370

general purposes

3

PS (HIPS)

360

high impact

1

PS (EPS)

360

expandable

3

PUR energy absorbing

490

3

PUR flexible block foam

480

for furniture, bedding, clothing

3

PUR hardfoam

420

used in white goods, insulation, construction material

1

PUR semi rigid foam

480

3

PVC high impact

280

Without metal stabilizer (Pb or Ba) and without plasticizer

(see under Chemicals)

1

PVC (rigid)

270

rigid PVC with 10% plasticizers (crude estimate)

1*

PVC (flexible)

240

Flexible PVC with 50% plasticizers (crude estimate)

1*

PVDC

440

for thin coatings

3


Processing of plastics (in millipoints)
Indicator Description

Blow foil extrusion PE

2.1

per kg PE granulate, but without production of PE. Foil to be used for bags

2

Calandering PVC foil

3.7

per kg PVC granulate, but without production of PVC

2

Injection moulding – 1

21

per kg PE, PP, PS, ABS, without production of material

4

Injection moulding – 2

44

per kg PVC, PC, without production of material

4

Milling,turning,drilling

6.4

per dm3 machined material, without production of lost

material

4

Pressure forming

6.4

per kg

4

React.Inj.Moulding-PUR

12

per kg, without production of PUR and possible other

components

4

Ultrasonic welding

0.098

per m welded length

4

Vacuum-forming

9.1

per kg material, but without production of material

4


Production of rubbers (in millipoints per kg)
Indicator Description

EPDM rubber

360

Vulcanised with 44% carbon, including moulding

1

Production of packaging materials (in millipoints per kg)
Indicator Description

Packaging carton

69

CO2 absorption in growth stage disregarded

1

Paper

96

Containing 65% waste paper, CO2 absorption in growth

stage disregarded

1

Glass (brown)

50

Packaging glass containing 61% recycled glass

2

Glass (green)

51

Packaging glass containing 99% recycled glass

2

Glass (white)

58

Packaging glass containing 55% recycled glass

2


Production of chemicals and others (in millipoints per kg)
Indicator Description

Ammonia

160

NH3

1

Argon

7.8

Inert gas, used in light bulbs, welding of reactive metals

like aluminium

1

Bentonite

13

Used in cat litter, porcelain etc.

1

Carbon black

180

Used for colouring and as filler

1

Chemicals inorganic

53

Average value for production of inorganic chemicals

1

Chemicals organic

99

Average value for production of organic chemicals

1

Chlorine

38

Cl2. Produced with diaphragm production process

(modern technology)

1

Dimethyl p-phthalate

190

Used as plasticizer for softening PVC

1

Ethylene oxide/glycol

330

Used as industrial solvent and cleaning agent

1

Fuel oil

180

Production of fuel only. Combustion excluded!

1

Fuel petrol unleaded

210

Production of fuel only. Combustion excluded!

1

Fuel diesel

180

Production of fuel only. Combustion excluded!

1

H2

830

Hydrogen gas. Used for reduction processes

1

H2SO4

22

Sulphuric acid. Used for cleaning and staining

1

HCl

39

Hydrochloric acid, used for processing of metals and

cleaning

1

HF

140

Fluoric acid

1

N2

12

Nitrogen gas. Used as an inert atmosphere

1

NaCl

6.6

Sodium chloride

1

NaOH

38

Caustic soda

1

Nitric acid

55

HNO3. Used for staining metals

1

O2

12

Oxygen gas.

1

Phosphoric acid

99

H3PO4. Used in preparation of fertiliser

1

Propylene glycol

200

Used as an anti-freeze, and as solvent

1

R134a (coolant)

150

Production of R134a only! Emission of 1 kg R134a

to air gives 7300 mPt

1

R22 (coolant)

240

Production of R22 only! Emission of 1 kg R22 to air

gives 8400 mPt

1

Silicate (waterglass)

60

Used in the manufacture of silica gel, detergent

manufacture and metal cleaning

1

Soda

45

Na2CO3. Used in detergents

1

Ureum

130

Used in fertilisers

1

Water decarbonized

0.0026

Processing only; effects on groundwater table (if any)

disregarded

1

Water demineralized

0.026

Processing only; effects on groundwater table (if any)

disregarded

1

Zeolite

160

Used for absorption processes and in detergents

1

Production of building material (in millipoints per kg)
Indicator Description

Alkyd varnish

520

Production + emissions during use of varnish, containing

55% solvents

5

Cement

20

Portland cement

1

Ceramics

28

Bricks etc.

1

Concrete not reinforced

3.8

Concrete with a density of 2200 kg/m3

1

Float glass coated

51

Used for windows, Tin, Silver and Nickel coating (77 g/m2)

1

Float glass uncoated

49

Used for windows

1

Gypsum

9.9

Selenite. Used as filler.

1

Gravel

0.84

Extraction and transport

1

Lime (burnt)

28

CaO. Used for production of cement and concrete. Can also

be used as strong base

1

Lime (hydrated)

21

Ca(OH)2. Used for production of mortar

1

Mineral wool

61

Used for insulation

1

Massive building

1500

Rough estimate of a (concrete) building per m3 volume

(capital goods)

1

Metal construction building

4300

Rough estimate of a building per m3 volume (capital goods)

1

Sand

0.82

Extraction and transport

1

Wood board

39

European wood (FSC criteria); CO2 absorption in growth

stage disregarded

1*

Wood massive

6.6

European wood (FSC criteria); CO2 absorption in growth

stage disregarded

1*

Land-use

45

Occupation as urban land per m2 yr

*


Heat (in millipoints per MJ)
Indicator Description

Including fuel production

Heat coal briquette (stove)

4.6

Combustion of coal in a 5-15 kW furnace

1

Heat coal (industrial furnace)

4.2

Combustion of coal in a industrial furnace (1-10MW)

1

Heat lignite briquet

3.2

Combustion of lignite in a 5-15kW furnace

1

Heat gas (boiler)

5.4

Combustion of gas in an atmospheric boiler (<100kW)

with low NOx

1

Heat gas (industrial furnace)

5.3

Combustion of gas in an industrial furnace (>100kW)

with low NOx

1

Heat oil (boiler)

5.6

Combustion of oil in a 10kW furnace

1

Heat oil (industrial furnace)

11

Combustion of oil in an industrial furnace

1

Heat wood

1.6

Combustion of wood; CO2 absorption and emission

disregarded

1*


Solar energy (in millipoints per kWh)
Indicator Description

Electricity facade m-Si

9.7

Small installation (3kWp) with monocrystaline cells, used

on building facade

1

Electricity facade p-Si

14

Small installation (3kWp) with polycrystaline cells, used

on building facade

1

Electricity roof m-Si

7.2

Small installation (3kWp) with monocrystaline cells, used

on building roof

1

Electricity roof p-Si

10

Small installation (3kWp) with polycrystaline cells, used

on building roof

1


lectricity (in millipoints per kWh)
Indicator Description

Including fuel production

Electr. HV Europe (UCPTE)

22

High voltage (> 24 kVolt)

1

Electr. MV Europe (UCPTE)

22

Medium voltage (1 kV – 24 kVolt)

1

Electr. LV Europe (UCPTE)

26

Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1

Electricity LV Austria

18

Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1

Electricity LV Belgium

22

Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1

Electricity LV Switzerland

8.4

Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1

Electricity LV Great Britain

33

Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1

Electricity LV France

8.9

Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1

Electricity LV Greece

61

Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1

Electricity LV Italy

47

Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1

Electricity LV the Netherlands

37

Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1

Electricity LV Portugal

46

Low voltage (< 1000Volt)

1


Transport (in millipoints per km)
Indicator Description

Including fuel production

Delivery van <3.5t

140

Road transport with 30% load, 33% petrol unleaded, 38% petrol leaded, 29% diesel (38% without catalyst) (European average including return)

1

Truck 16t

34

Road transport with 40% load (European average including

return)

1

Truck 28t

22

Road transport with 40% load (European average including

return)

1

Truck 28t (volume)

8

Road transport per m3km. Use when volume in stead of load

is limiting factor

1*

Truck 40t

15

Road transport with 50% load (European average including

return)

1

Passenger car W-Europe

29

Road transport per km

1

Rail transport

3.9

Rail transport, 20% diesel and 80% electric trains

1

Tanker inland

5

Water transport with 65% load (European average including

return)

1

Tanker oceanic

0.8

Water transport with 54% load (European average including

return)

1

Freighter inland

5.1

Water transport with 70% load (European average including

return)

1

Freighter oceanic

1.1

Water transport with 70% load (European average including

return)

1

Average air transport

78

Air transport with 78% load (Average of all flights)

6

Continental air transport

120

Air transport in a Boeing 737 with 62% load (Average of all

flights)

6

Intercontinental air transport

80

Air transport in a Boeing 747 with 78% load (Average of all

flights)

6

Intercontinental air transport

72

Air transport in a Boeing 767 or MD 11 with 71% load

(Average of all flights)

6

Recycling of waste (in millipoints per kg)

Indicator

Description

Total

Process

Avoided

product

Environmental load of the recycling process and the avoided product differs from case to case. The values are an example for recycling of primary material.

Recycling PE

-240

86

-330

if not mixed with other plastics

7*

Recycling PP

-210

86

-300

if not mixed with other plastics

7*

Recycling PS

-240

86

-330

if not mixed with other plastics

7*

Recycling PVC

-170

86

-250

if not mixed with other plastics

7*

Recycling Paper

-1,2

32

-33

Recycling avoids virgin paper production

2*

Recycling Cardboard

-8,3

41

-50

Recycling avoids virgin cardboard production

2*

Recycling Glass

-15

51

-66

Recycling avoids virgin glass production

2*

Recycling Aluminium

-720

60

-780

Recycling avoids primary aluminium.

1*

Recycling Ferro metals

-70

24

-94

Recycling avoids primary steel production

1*


Waste treatment (in millipoints per kg)
Indicator Description
Incineration

Incineration in a waste incineration plant in Europe. Average scenario for energy recovery. 22% of municipal waste in Europe is incinerated

Incineration PE

-19

Indicator can be used for both HDPE and LDPE

2*

Incineration PP

-13

2*

Incineration PUR

2,8

Indicator can be used for all types of PUR

2*

Incineration PET

-6,3

2*

Incineration PS

-5,3

Relatively low energy yield, can also be used for ABS, HIPS, GPPS, EPS

2*

Incineration Nylon

1,1

Relatively low energy yield

2*

Incineration PVC

37

Relatively low energy yield

2*

Incineration PVDC

66

Relatively low energy yield

2*

Incineration Paper

-12

High energy yield CO2 emission disregarded

2*

Incineration Cardboard

-12

High energy yield CO2 emission disregarded

2*

Incineration Steel

-32

40% magnetic separation for recycling, avoiding crude iron

(European average)

2*

Incineration Aluminium

-110

15% magnetic separation for recycling, avoiding primary

aluminium

2*

Incineration Glass

5,1

Almost inert material, indicator can be used for other inert

materials

2

Landfill

Controlled landfill site. 78% of municipal waste in Europe

is landfilled

Landfill PE

3,9

2

Landfill PP

3,5

2

Landfill PET

3,1

2

Landfill PS

4,1

Indicator can also be used for landfill of ABS

2

Landfill EPS foam

7,4

PS foam, 40 kg/m3, large volume

2*

Landfill foam 20kg/m3

9,7

Landfill of foam like PUR with 20kg/m3

2*

Landfill foam 100kg/m3

4,3

Landfill of foam like PUR with 100kg/m3

2*

Landfill Nylon

3,6

2*

Landfill PVC

2,8

Excluding leaching of metal stabilizer

2

Landfill PVDC

2,2

2

Landfill Paper

4,3

CO2 and methane emission disregarded

2

Landfill Cardboard

4,2

CO2 and methane emission disregarded

2

Landfill Glass

1,4

Almost inert material, indicator can also be used for other

inert materials

2

Landfill Steel

1,4

Almost inert material on landfill, indicator can be used for

ferrous metals

2

Landfill Aluminium

1,4

Almost inert material on landfill, indicator is valid for

primary and recycled alu.

2

Landfill of 1 m3 volume

140

Landfill of volume per m3, use for voluminous waste, like

foam and products

*

Municipal waste

In Europe, 22% of municipal waste is incinerated, 78% is landfilled.

Indicator is not valid for voluminous waste and secondary materials

Municipal waste PE

-1,1

2*

Municipal waste PP

-0,13

2*

Municipal waste PET

1

2*

Municipal waste PS

2

Not valid for foam products

2*

Municipal waste Nylon

3,1

2*

Municipal waste PVC

10

2*

Municipal waste PVDC

16

2*

Municipal waste Paper

0,71

2*

Municipal waste Cardboard

0,64

2*

Municipal waste ECCS steel

-5,9

Valid for primary steel only!

2*

Municipal waste Aluminium

-23

Valid for primary aluminium only!

2*

Municipal waste Glass

2,2

2*

Household waste

Separation by consumers of waste for recycling (average European scenario)

Paper

-0,13

44% separation by consumers

2*

Cardboard

-3,3

44% separation by consumers

2*

Glass

-6,9

52% separation by consumers

2*

Notes on the process data

The last column of the indicator list contains a code, referring to the origin of the process data, like the emissions, extracted resources and land-uses. In Chapter 5 of the Manual for Designers we refer to this as the data collected under "Step 1".

Below the data sources are briefly described. In all cases the data has been entered into LCA software (SimaPro) and then evaluated with the Eco-indicator 99 methodology.

1.By far most data have been taken directly from the ESU-ETH database Ökoinventare für Energiesystemen (Environmental data on energy systems), the third edition, produced by ETH in Zurich. This very comprehensive database includes capital goods (i.e. concrete for hydroelectric dams and copper for the distribution of electricity) and items like exploration drilling (exploration drilling) for energy systems. Also for transport, capital goods and infrastructure (maintenance and construction of roads, railways and harbours) are included. For material production capital goods are not included. Finally it is important to note that land-use is taken into account in all processes.

2.The Swiss ministry of Environment (BUWAL) has developed a database on packaging materials with the above-mentioned ESU-ETH database as the starting point. However, in this database all capital goods are left out. For the Eco-indicator 99 project we used the data on waste disposal and a few specific packaging materials. For disposal data we made a number of recalculations to include the "positive" effects form reusing material (recycling) or energy (waste incineration). Next to this we used the [OECD 1997] compendium to generate waste scenarios for municipal and household waste for Europe. An important difference with the Eco-indicator 95 is that now we use European in stead of Dutch scenario data. [BUWAL 250-1998]

3.The European Plastics industry (APME) has collected state of the art data for average environmental load for many plastics. As far as possible we used the ESU-ETH version (see 1), as this combines the APME data with much better detailed energy and transport data. The data marked with a 3 are thus the original data, but as they use rather simplified energy and transport data, they can deviate approximately 10 % from the other indicators [APME/PWMI]

4.Processing data has mostly been taken form the Eco-indicator 95 project. In virtually all cases only the primary energy consumption has been taken into account. Material loss and additional materials as lubricants are not included. It should be noted that the energy consumption of a process is very much determined by the type of equipment, the geometry of a product and the scale of operation. Therefore we suggest to take these indicators only as a rough estimate and to calculate more specific data by determining the exact energy consumption in a particular case and to use the indicator for electricity consumption to find a better value. Experience shows that mechanical processing contributes relatively little to the environmental load over the lifecycle. This means the crude nature of the data does not really have to be a big problem. [Kemna 1982]

5.Data on alkyd paint production have been added on the basis of a somewhat older study of AKZO.

6.The KLM environmental annual report was the basis for the data on air transport. This data includes the handling of planes on the ground. [KLM 1999]

7.Data for recycling of plastics are taken from an extensive study of the Centre of Energy Conservation and Clean Technology [CE 1994]



Call on Resources Table of Contents

5.1 Personnel and time needed

This process can be more or less time consuming, depending on the level details in which the analysis is carried out. It will require a few hours work, taking into consideration that data collection is time consuming.


Literature, examples and background information Table of Contents

6.1 Methodological References

Goedkoop, M.J.; Spriensma, R.S.; The Eco-indicator 99, Methodology report, A damage oriented LCIA Method; VROM Report, Den Haag, 1999