1 – Introduction to the functioning of the tool
The tool is based on Powerpoint template as a simple and diffused software allowing elaboration from all participants to the project, easy exchange, modification and presentation at each stage of the development.
The description of the tool will first present the format, the library of graphic elements and the set of rules to be used to draw system maps. A second part will present the progressive elaboration of the map at each stage of the methodology.
2 – Conventions on the format of the System Map
A system map is based on one Powerpoint slide (Figure 1).
The limit of the slide is by convention the boundaries of the PSS.
A rectangle drawn on the slide shows the PSS platform boundaries. Core actors performing the PSS are situated inside; outside the all PSS life cycle is represented (upstream/left; downstream/right) such as secondary stakeholders (top and down) providing PSS options or contributing as subcontractors.
Figure 1: layout of system and platform boundaries.
Each actor is represented by one icon made of three elements:
· The structure representing the type of institution the actor (Figure 2 and Figure 3);
· A characterisation defining the actor’s activity output (producing food, transporting goods, delivering to local users…) (Figure 4);
· A slogan qualifying the actor activity / intentions (bio food provider, logistic provider, local delivery shop (Figure 5);
· The resulting icon composed of standardised elements is specific to the actor and easy to differentiate on the map (Figure 5).
Figure 2: the structure shows the nature of the institution (company, shop, household…)
Figure 3: two dimensions of the structure make the differentiation between main and secondary actors.
Figure 4: a graphic library contains pictograms used to characterise actors activity output;
Figure 5: construction process of actors icons based on a structure + a characterisation + slogan.
The nature of the flows between the different actors is marked by different arrows (Figure 6):
- Plain stroke showing material flows;
- Square fine dashed strokes showing informational flows;
- Round middle dashed strokes showing financial flows.
One way and both ways flows are distinguished as well as core service performance flows (dark grey) and secondary service performance (light grey).
Figure 6: material, informational and financial flows are defined.
Each system map is made of actor’s icons and flows arrows.
The sequence of flows of core PSS performance is detailed (starting from a “start” point using dark grey arrows with numerated captions) whereas PSS option flows are only mentioned (light grey arrows with non sequential captions) (Figure 7).
In general only consistent flows are mentioned to keep legibility of the map.
Figure 7: the construction of the map distinguishes core PSS performance flows from PSS options flows.
3 – Completion of the System Map from one phase to the next
System maps evolves in details and precision from the tentative PSS idea till the development of the PSS. The three stages of the modular structure are illustrated there:
· Exploring Opportunities phase: Formalisation of the tentative PSS idea emerging form the scenario workshop (
· Figure 8);
· PSS Idea Development phase: Choice of a PSS idea and definition of the PSS organisation (
· Figure 9);
· PSS Development phase: Design of the detailed organisation of actors and flows among them (
· Figure 10).
Figure 8: in the scenario generation phase, the stakeholders organisation is described for each tentative PSS idea. At this stage the System Map is only drafted. It shows the core performance characterising the tentative idea. In order to facilitate the differentiation of the maps relating to the many tentative ideas generated in the scenario building workshop, it contains also a remainder of the offering visualisation.
Figure 9: in the PSS idea module, one idea emerges from the discussion of the scenario workshop outputs. The SystemMap precises the PSS core performance and the main stakeholders involved. Secondary stakeholders are also identified and flows are completed for material, informational and financial transactions.
Figure 10: in the development module, parts of the SystemMap may be detailed in order to precise actual actors and flows where it’s necessary. In the example above, the Food Atelier is a key place for the performance of the PSS. Therefore, the System Map shows a zoom in the shop in order to detail the sub-elements constituting these actors and show their involvement according to the different PSS options. In this case, the System Map shows the functional organisation of the Food Atelier space and may be an input for the interior design of the place.