| Worksheet W23 - Offering Diagram|
|Table of Contents|
|2. Putting into Practice|
|4. Software, templates and other support|
|5. Call on Resources|
|6. Literature, examples and background information|
|The offering diagram is a static representation of the PSS functionalities that can be used both as a design and a visualization tool.
The tool is a way of representing all the functionalities of a PSS, around the core function. The objective of the diagram is to focus and describe the PSS basic and added value functionalities following a radial pattern that is developed around the core function, and if necessary clustering the functionalities that have reciprocal interconnections. |
2.1 When and why should this tool be used?
This tool can be used both to map existing PSS offering and to gradually design and visualise new ones. It helps the design team to detail what the PSS is going to supply and to position it in the market. It is a progressive tool that needs to be further detailed at each phase of the methodology.
2.2 Who should use this tool?
This tool can be used by anybody in the design team as it doesn’t require, in its basic application, any kind of graphical skills. It can, anyway, be improved with images and graphical qualities when used as a communication tool.
3.1 How should this tool be used?
1 - Introduction to the items visualised on the Offering Diagram
- The core function is the main performance of the PSS that synthesises its essence (e.g. Delivery of personalised meals);
- The basic functionalities are those necessary to offer the core function (ordering, paying, etc.), while the added-value functionalities are those that can be connected to the core one to enrich and augment the value of the PSS offering (e.g. in a “meal delivery” service, the meal ordering is a core functionality, while “diet advice” could be an added value one);
- The sub-functionalities describe the way the PSS functionalities will be delivered (for example the functionality “diet advice” could be articulated in terms of “diet information on-line”, “diet library in the shop”, “diet information on the products”);
- The offering diagram can be simply sketched on paper and doesn’t need any particular software program. The simple diagram with all functionalities described in words is enough to understand the system offering, eventual pictures can be added to visualize it and to help the dialogue with potential users and stakeholders.
2 – Implementation of the tool at each phase of the methodology
At the Exploring Opportunities phase, the core function must be identified and described. Identifying the core function means to focus on the main and distinctive performance of the system (e.g. Delivery of personalised mails). In this phase it could be useful to give a name to the PSS idea, elaborate a synthetic, but effective, written description of the PSS core performance and to propose an advertise-like image to visualise it.
Figure 1: OfferingDiagram showing the main function of the tentative PSS idea in the form of a simulated advertisement
PSS Idea Development
At the PSS Idea Development phase, the PSS offering should be further developed and detailed, starting from the core function and working on the basic and added-value functionalities that build up the PSS.
The offering diagram could be seen both as a design tool pushing/supporting designers to start detailing what the PSS offering is made up of or as a visualisation one that facilitates the communication within the team or with the stakeholders.
The PSS functionalities should be drawn around the core function following a radial pattern (see fig. 2) and using the size in order to communicate if the functionality is a basic (bigger) or a added-value (smaller) one.
Figure 2: OfferingDiagram showing the basic and added-value functionalities of the PSS idea
At the PSS Development phase, all the single functionalities must be articulated in specific sub-functionalities required for the PSS implementation. It means that each basic or advanced functionality need to be described in clusters of sub-functionalities, if any, in order to be delivered. The question should be: how can the PSS deliver that functionality?
Within the diagram the sub-functionalities must be clustered in a radial shape around the related functionality.
Figure 3: Part of the detailed Offering Diagram that visualises the all PSS offering
The result is a diagram that enables to visualise all the functionalities of the PSS. There can be different diagrams for the different PSS ideas or scenarios envisaged.
3.3 Input needed/ data required/ data acquisition process
The input to the Offering Diagram will be the design work achieved either during the brainstorming sessions or during the ‘homework’ performed at each phase, the description of user profiles and of system potentialities.
This tool does not require any software.
4.2 Templates and other support
No specific template is foreseen.
5.1 Personnel and time needed
This tool requires approximately 2/3 hours of work at each phase of the methodology.
6.1 Methodological References
Excerpt from “Final version of the design PSS methodology and toolkit for industry”, by François Jegou, Elena Pacenti, Daniela Sangiorgi, Ursula Tischner and Carlo Vezzoli.
The Offering Diagram tool is an elaboration from:
- “Service package” concept from: Negro, G., Organizzare la qualità nei servizi, Il Sole24Ore, Milano, 1992
- FAST (Functional Analysis System Technique) tool from: Ramaswamy, R., Design and Management of Service Processes. Keeping Customers for Life, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Massachusetts, 1996
Daniela Sangiorgi, Il Design dei servizi come Design dei Sistemi di Attività. La Teoria dell’Attività applicata alla progettazione dei servizi, tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Disegno Industriale, XV ciclo, 2004
Pacenti, E., Il progetto dell’interazione nei servizi. Un contributo al tema della progettazione
dei servizi, tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Disegno Industriale, X ciclo, Aprile 1995 – Ottobre 1998